Skip to main content


Emissions of methane from the industrial sector have been vastly underestimated, researchers from Cornell and Environmental Defense Fund have found.

A Cornell-Environmental Defense Fund research team equipped a Google Street View car with a high-precision methane sensor and found methane emissions from ammonia fertilizer plants to be 100 times higher than the fertilizer industry’s self-reported estimate.

Using a Google Street View car equipped with a high-precision methane sensor, the researchers discovered that methane emissions from ammonia fertilizer plants were 100 times higher than the fertilizer industry’s self-reported estimate. They also were substantially higher than the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimate for all industrial processes in the United States.

“We took one small industry that most people have never heard of and found that its methane emissions were three times higher than the EPA assumed was emitted by all industrial production in the United States,” said John Albertson, co-author and professor of civil and environmental engineering. “It shows us that there’s a huge gap between a priori estimates and real-world measurements.”

The researchers’ findings are reported in “Estimation of Methane Emissions From the U.S. Ammonia Fertilizer Industry Using a Mobile Sensing Approach,” published May 28 in Elementa. The work was funded in part by a grant from the Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future’s joint research program with EDF.

The use of natural gas has grown in recent years, bolstered by improved efficiency in shale gas extraction and the perception that natural gas is a less dirty fossil fuel.

“But natural gas is largely methane, which molecule-per-molecule has a stronger global warming potential than carbon dioxide,” Albertson said. “The presence of substantial emissions or leaks anywhere along the supply chain could make natural gas a more significant contributor to climate change than previously thought.”

To date, methane emissions have been assessed at a variety of sites – from the well pads where natural gas is extracted to the power plants and municipal pipelines downstream. 

To evaluate methane emissions from downstream industrial sources, the researchers focused on the fertilizer industry, which uses natural gas both as the fuel and one of the main ingredients for ammonia and urea products. Ammonia fertilizer is produced at only a couple dozen plants in the U.S.; factories are often located near public roadways, where emissions carried downwind can be detected – in this case by mobile sensors.

For this study, the Google Street View vehicle traveled public roads near six representative fertilizer plants in the country’s midsection to quantify “fugitive methane emissions” – defined as inadvertent losses of methane to the atmosphere, likely due to incomplete chemical reactions during fertilizer production, incomplete fuel combustion or leaks.

Once a concentrated methane plume was detected downwind of a plant, the emissions were measured through dozens of laps around the facility.

The team discovered that, on average, 0.34% of the gas used in the plants is emitted to the atmosphere. Scaling this emission rate from the six plants to the entire industry suggests total annual methane emissions of 28 gigagrams – 100 times higher than the fertilizer industry’s self-reported estimate of 0.2 gigagrams per year.

In addition, this figure far exceeds the EPA’s estimate that all industrial processes in the United States produce only 8 gigagrams of methane emissions per year.

“Even though a small percentage is being leaked, the fact that methane is such a powerful greenhouse gas makes the small leaks very important,” said Joseph Rudek, co-author and lead senior scientist at Environmental Defense Fund. “In a 20-year timeframe, methane’s global warming potential is 84 times that of carbon dioxide.”

The study demonstrates that mobile sensing is an economical way to pinpoint significant emissions sources and enable rapid and efficient mitigation – vital for rapidly reducing the rate of warming. Albertson is also optimistic about the broad application of mobile sensors, which could be deployed on vehicles such as school buses and postal trucks to characterize sources and rates of pollution – and perhaps influence policymakers.

“Pollution in the air doesn’t respect property boundaries, so even if you don’t have access to private land, the current revolution in sensor technologies allows us a lens into the degree of cleanliness of a factory,” Albertson said. “With opportunistic sensing, pushing data to the cloud, doing the proper analysis and drawing inferences, we can build environmental policy that is based on evidence.”

Other contributors include Xiaochi Zhou, former Cornell postdoctoral researcher and current air resources engineer with the California Air Resources Board; Fletcher Passow ‘19; and researchers from Colorado State University and the Environmental Defense Fund.

Amanda Garris is a freelance writer for the Atkinson Center.




套路直播app下载手机版 Avnight污app在线下载 芭乐视频app污 快喵app下载手机版 粉色app下载手机版 芭乐视频app污 大番号app下载手机版 豆奶抖音短视频污app在线下载 BB直播app污 夜魅直播app污 Kitty直播app污 泡芙视频app下载手机版 樱桃app污 成版人茄子视频app下载手机版 烟花巷app污 小天仙直播污app在线下载 菠萝蜜视频app下载手机版 蜜桃app污 春水堂视频app污 花粥直播app下载手机版 樱花直播app下载手机版 抖阴视频污app在线下载 含羞草app下载手机版 富二代短视频污app在线下载 硬汉视频app污 卡哇伊直播污app在线下载 欢喜视频app下载手机版 彩云直播app污 合欢视频app下载手机版 花友直播app污 蜜柚污app在线下载 草榴视频app下载手机版 本色视频app污 大象视频app污 iavboboapp污 薰衣草直播污app在线下载 荔枝app污 9uuapp下载手机版 抖阴app下载手机版 尤蜜视频app污 木瓜app污 avgo污app在线下载 橙子直播污app在线下载 后宫app下载手机版 蝶恋花污app在线下载 朵朵直播app下载手机版 秀色直播app污 云上花直播app下载手机版 AVBOBOapp下载手机版 四虎app下载手机版 香草成视频人app下载手机版 主播大秀污app在线下载 暖暖直播app污 夜夜直播app污 佳丽直播app污 月夜直播app下载手机版 浪浪视频app下载手机版 享爱污app在线下载 红玫瑰直播app污 花秀神器app污 粉色app下载手机版 云雨直播app下载手机版 青草视频app下载手机版 雨燕直播app污 花样视频app下载手机版 泡芙视频污app在线下载 小草莓污app在线下载 菠萝蜜app污 遇见直播app下载手机版 最污直播app污 番茄视频app下载手机版 美岁直播app下载手机版 乐购直播app下载手机版 香蜜直播app下载手机版 红高粱直播污app在线下载 后宫app污 红玫瑰直播app污 尤蜜app污 盘他直播污app在线下载 bobo直播污app在线下载 91视频app污 樱花直播污app在线下载 主播大秀app下载手机版 丝瓜app下载手机版 91视频app污 桃花直播污app在线下载 大秀直播污app在线下载 iAVBOBOapp下载手机版 茄子视频污app在线下载 比心app下载手机版 香蜜直播app下载手机版 七仙女直播app污 迷雾直播污app在线下载 月光宝盒直播app下载手机版 盘她app污 avgoapp下载手机版 杏花直播污app在线下载 粉色视频污app在线下载 丝瓜app下载手机版 小奶猫app污 小小影视app下载手机版 逗趣直播app污 兔子直播app下载手机版 七秒鱼污app在线下载 草榴直播污app在线下载 荔枝视频app污 佳丽直播视频污app在线下载 好嗨哟直播app下载手机版 菠萝菠萝蜜视频app污 快喵app下载手机版 黄瓜app污 小狐仙app污 番茄社区污app在线下载 花姿污app在线下载 皮卡丘直播污app在线下载 红玫瑰直播污app在线下载 富二代f2app下载手机版 成版人短视频app下载手机版 红楼直播污app在线下载 番茄社区app下载手机版 水晶直播app污 东京视频污app在线下载 黄页荔枝污app在线下载 米老鼠直播app下载手机版 豆奶视频app下载手机版 彩云直播app下载手机版 杏花直播app下载手机版 含羞草实验研究所app污 69热污app在线下载 丝瓜草莓视频app污 含羞草污app在线下载 年轻人片app污 草莓直播污app在线下载 野花视频污app在线下载 小米粒直播app污 夜猫视频app下载手机版 樱花视频污app在线下载 骚虎直播app下载手机版 金屋藏娇直播间污app在线下载 BB直播app下载手机版 宅男之家app污 美岁直播app污 黄色直播软件app污 小怪兽直播污app在线下载 盘她app下载手机版 望月直播app污 梦幻直播污app在线下载 探探直播app污 鸭脖视频污app在线下载 麻豆传媒直播污app在线下载 菠萝蜜视频app污 朵朵直播app下载手机版 盘她app污 小怪兽app污 榴莲视频污app在线下载 欢喜视频app下载手机版 小奶狗污app在线下载 大小姐直播app下载手机版 可乐视频app污 盘他污app在线下载 花友直播污app在线下载 福利直播app污 年轻人片污app在线下载 享爱直播污app在线下载 桃花直播app污 食色污app在线下载 探花直播污app在线下载 咪咪直播app污 秋葵视频app下载手机版 91香蕉app污 黄瓜污app在线下载 嘿嘿连载污app在线下载 小v视频app下载手机版 成版人短视频污app在线下载 幸福宝污app在线下载 樱桃视频app下载手机版 小优app下载手机版 千层浪视频污app在线下载 西瓜直播app下载手机版 丝瓜视频污污app在线下载 初恋视频app下载手机版 后宫视频app下载手机版 盘他app污 男人本色西瓜视频app污 菠萝菠萝蜜视频污app在线下载 泡芙短视频app下载手机版 桃花直播污app在线下载 妖妖直播污app在线下载 梦鹿直播app污 小奶狗视频app污 猫咪视频app污 快播破解污app在线下载 花姬污app在线下载 青青草app污 夜猫视频污app在线下载 一对一直播污app在线下载 蝴蝶直播污app在线下载 烟花直播app污 后宫app污 幸福宝app下载手机版 红玫瑰直播app下载手机版 红杏视频app污 葡萄视频app下载手机版 雨燕直播污app在线下载 小公主直播污app在线下载 久草视频app污 health2app下载手机版 铁牛视频app下载手机版 红高粱直播app下载手机版 梦幻直播app污 野花视频污app在线下载 午夜直播app下载手机版 盘他直播app下载手机版 小优app污 卡哇伊直播app下载手机版 和欢视频污app在线下载 蜜桃直播污app在线下载 盘他直播污app在线下载 小宝贝直播污app在线下载 青草视频app污 最污直播污app在线下载 乐购直播app下载手机版 橙子直播污app在线下载 媚妹秀app下载手机版 年轻人片app污 荔枝视频污app在线下载 享爱直播污app在线下载 杏花直播app污 花椒直播app污 久草视频app下载手机版 梦幻直播app污 朵朵直播app下载手机版 麻豆传媒视频app下载手机版 s8视频app下载手机版 性直播app下载手机版 丝瓜app下载手机版 咪哒污app在线下载 泡芙短视频app污 蓝精灵直播污app在线下载 91香蕉app污 老王视频app下载手机版 含羞草实验研究所污app在线下载 年轻人片app污 可乐视频污app在线下载 樱桃直播污app在线下载 最污直播污app在线下载 望月直播app下载手机版 午夜直播间污app在线下载 依恋直播污app在线下载 小怪兽污app在线下载 比心直播app污 红玫瑰直播污app在线下载 大象视频污app在线下载 IAVBOBOapp下载手机版 MM直播污app在线下载 小宝贝直播app下载手机版 富二代f2app下载手机版 小优app下载手机版 黄瓜污app在线下载 fi11含羞草app污 趣播app下载手机版 福利直播app污 鲍鱼视频污app在线下载 逗趣直播app污 黄瓜直播app污 富二代f2app污 小奶狗污app在线下载 番茄视频app下载手机版 草鱼app下载手机版 盘他污app在线下载 金鱼直播app污 水蜜桃app下载手机版 盘他直播app污 草莓污app在线下载 AVBOBOapp下载手机版 ML聚合直播污app在线下载 久草视频污app在线下载 樱花雨直播app污 大西瓜视频污app在线下载 粉色app下载手机版 桃花污app在线下载 猛虎视频app污 彩云直播app污 后宫视频app下载手机版 iavboboapp下载手机版 千层浪直播app下载手机版 污直播app下载手机版 向日葵污app在线下载 豆奶抖音短视频污app在线下载 春水堂视频app污 丝瓜视频污污app在线下载 云上花app下载手机版 免费黃色直播app下载手机版 向日葵视频app污 ML聚合直播污app在线下载 草榴视频app污 芭乐污app在线下载 樱桃视频污app在线下载 迷雾直播app下载手机版 暗夜直播污app在线下载 午夜直播间app污 小草莓污app在线下载 69视频污app在线下载 水晶直播app下载手机版 牛牛视频污app在线下载 暗夜直播污app在线下载 香蜜直播app下载手机版 月亮直播app污 蜜橙视频app下载手机版 月色直播app下载手机版 嘿嘿连载app下载手机版 小优app污 名优馆app污 主播大秀app下载手机版 浪浪视频app污 云上花app下载手机版 BB直播app下载手机版 美岁直播app下载手机版 四虎app下载手机版 逗趣直播app下载手机版 七秒鱼污app在线下载 fi11含羞草污app在线下载 依恋直播app下载手机版 芭乐视频污app在线下载 金屋藏娇直播间app下载手机版 黄瓜视频app污 小草莓app下载手机版 青青草app污 health2app下载手机版 梦幻直播app下载手机版 豆奶app下载手机版 夜魅直播app污 月光直播app下载手机版 抖阴污app在线下载 梦鹿直播app下载手机版 花粥直播app下载手机版 红娘直播app下载手机版 香蕉视频污app在线下载 小草视频app下载手机版 夜遇直播号污app在线下载 快猫短视频app下载手机版 樱桃视频app污 小狐仙app下载手机版 月光宝盒直播app污 含羞草app下载手机版 小喵直播app下载手机版 梦幻直播app污 猛虎直播污app在线下载 香蕉app污 十里桃花直播app污 富二代短视频app污 年华直播污app在线下载 黄色直播软件app污 夜魅直播app下载手机版 大西瓜视频污app在线下载 黄瓜视频污app在线下载 7秒鱼直播app下载手机版 草莓app污 swag视频污app在线下载 7秒鱼直播app污 卡哇伊app下载手机版 91香蕉app下载手机版 番茄直播污app在线下载 丝瓜视频污污app在线下载 夜魅直播app污 蜜蜂视频app下载手机版 樱花app下载手机版 黄瓜视频污app在线下载 黄瓜直播app污 小猪视频app下载手机版 香蕉app下载手机版 花样视频污app在线下载 快猫短视频app下载手机版 抖阴视频app污 含羞草app下载手机版 6房间视频直播app污 老王视频app污 ML聚合污app在线下载 享爱直播app下载手机版 荔枝app下载手机版 微杏污app在线下载 花椒直播污app在线下载 浪浪视频app下载手机版 小蝌蚪视频app下载手机版 秀儿直播污app在线下载 铁牛污app在线下载 笔芯直播app下载手机版 花友直播app下载手机版 黄瓜视频人污app在线下载 富二代f2抖音app污 烟花巷app污 小优app污 啪嗒视频app污 大菠萝app污 乐购直播污app在线下载 芭乐视频app污 咪哒直播污app在线下载 美梦视频app下载手机版 水蜜桃app下载手机版 遇见直播app污 可乐视频app下载手机版 嘿嘿连载污app在线下载 小宝贝直播app下载手机版 佳丽直播视频污app在线下载 污直播app下载手机版 暗夜直播app污 红娘直播污app在线下载 含羞草app污 迷雾直播app污 茄子app污 雨云直播app下载手机版 蘑菇视频app下载手机版 草榴视频app污 小宝贝直播app污 黄瓜视频人app污 骚虎直播app下载手机版 香草视频app下载手机版 乐购直播污app在线下载 猫咪视频app下载手机版 樱桃污app在线下载 享爱污app在线下载 小姐姐直播污app在线下载 水晶直播app下载手机版 swag台湾污app在线下载 铁牛视频app污 荔枝app污 花狐狸直播app下载手机版 成人快手污app在线下载 梦幻直播app下载手机版 豆奶短视频污app在线下载 葫芦娃视频app下载手机版 鸭脖视频app污 快狐短视频污app在线下载 花心社区app污 蜜柚直播污app在线下载 大西瓜视频app污 光棍影院污app在线下载 香蕉直播污app在线下载 快播破解app下载手机版 桃花直播app污 黄瓜直播app污 佳丽直播app污 冈本视频app污 音色短视频app下载手机版 暗夜直播污app在线下载 月亮直播app下载手机版 iavboboapp污 烟花直播app下载手机版 千层浪app污 鸭脖视频app下载手机版 本色视频app污 仙人掌app污 麻豆传媒映画污app在线下载 d2天堂app污 番茄社区app污 小仙女污app在线下载 菠萝蜜app下载手机版 蓝精灵直播app污 小怪兽直播app污 么么直播app下载手机版 猛虎视频app污 火辣直播app污 么么直播app下载手机版 青草视频污app在线下载 黄瓜视频app下载手机版 午夜直播间app污 夜夜直播app污 初恋视频app污 秀色小抖音污app在线下载 小奶猫app污 月亮视频污app在线下载 茄子app污 木瓜视频污app在线下载 左手视频app污 春水堂app污 媚妹秀污app在线下载 雨云直播app下载手机版 杏花直播污app在线下载 春水堂视频app污 东京视频污app在线下载 茄子app下载手机版 快喵污app在线下载 初恋视频污app在线下载 7秒鱼直播app下载手机版 IAVBOBO污app在线下载 水晶直播污app在线下载 暗夜直播污app在线下载 芭乐app污 遇见直播app污 小狐仙视频app下载手机版 冈本app下载手机版 荔枝视频app下载手机版 春水堂污app在线下载 香草视频app下载手机版 成版人抖音富二代污app在线下载 花心污app在线下载 红娘直播app污 茄子直播污app在线下载 妖妖直播app污 黄页荔枝app污 冈本app污 快狐app下载手机版 大番号app下载手机版 食色app下载手机版 奶茶视频污app在线下载 91直播污app在线下载 考拉直播污app在线下载 酷咪直播app下载手机版